04/9/14

The State of Artificial Intelligence

state-of-artificial-intelligence-infographic

04/7/14

Some Basic Concepts in Image Steganography

(Note: I am by no means an expert on this matter, I am simply expressing my personal experience with the subject. For more information Wikipedia Steganography or Google would be a good start)

Steganography is the art of hiding message in such way that no one beside the intended receiver will find (if done correctly). This is by no means a new idea, the history of Steganography can be traced back to the 15 century. For our purposes, I am going to discuss Steganography in the general sense in the computer world, mostly done in Images, but not limited to them. For this example I am only going to consider 256 gray and colored images for simplicity of example, this can be done however with other images and data as well.

How information is stored?

Any computer data today consists of bits of data, 0 or a 1. A bunch of them constitute a byte, which is normally 4 bits. The length of a bit depends on a number of things such as implementation, system, usage and other factors. An image is usually stored as one of two options:

1. Black & White (Grayscale)
2. RGB colors (Normal)

In both cases the image is built from pixels, or a dot in a 2 dimensional array that has a certain value. In case of option 1 it would be on a scale from 0-255, 0 being black. For option 2 there aren three values that constitute one color as output, Red - Green - Blue, each with the same scale of values from 0 - 255, 0 being black. So if we have a Grayscale image with all values equal to 255, we will end up with a white image.

How to hide?

So lets say we have the following image (Grayscale) stored in memory:

basic_image

This would give us an empty 4 X 4 pixel white image. Keep in mind that any of these cell blocks is actually stored in memory as 255 = 11111111 in binary. Now you would agree that the character ‘A’ is equivalent to 65 in ascii which in binary is equal to 01000001. You would also agree that if we change one of these cell values to 254 it would be unnoticeable to the naked eye.

The ‘Magic’ bit...

We are going to store the individual values of A’s binary representation in the least significant bits of the image values. This means we would go over the cell or pixels of the image and change only the last bit of the value, changing the color by only 1. The cells of an image are numbered as follow:

cell_numbers

In order for to be stored in memory we will used the first 8 bits, changing the values in the LSB to match to ‘A’. The result will still be a seemabliy white page, stored in memory like this:

image_with_info

Color and Extraction

The same idea we applied to this example could be applied to an RGB file or any other data type. One could also encrypt the message hidden so even if it is found by anti-Steganography software it would be useless. Based on how you hide the memory you would also need an extraction code. For our example we would simply need to extract and concatenate the first 8 LSB and convert them back to a character, which would give us ‘A’. In other cases, like in RGB images, you will need to figure out how the information is hidden. RGB adds 3 dimensions and can get complicated really fast. All that is another topic all together for another time.

04/2/14

Video Game Live Streams, Major Networks, and Nearly-Billionaire Gamers

Twitch TV Infographic

Special thanks to Top10CloudStorage.com for this infographic.

03/31/14

The Cold Reality of a Wrench...

CryptoReality

03/28/14

The Rainfall Problem in Java

It has been quite a while since I have posted any code in Java. As I was going through some Java questioners, I came across the Rainfall problem. This problem is quite simple, the user is going to enter data, the average participation per day r something, and the output is some statistical information. To keep things interesting, no arrays can be used, so everything needs to be computed on the fly. For our purpose, the user will enter the last 12 months data, an he output will be the minimum, maximum and average participation. This is fairly simple and a great exam or interview question.

Note that the code will check that enteries are non negative numbers.

Here is how this is going to look in Java:

import java.util.Scanner;

public class Rainfall {

 public static void main(String[] args) {

  //variable setup
  Scanner input = new Scanner(System.in);
  String userInput = "";
  double sum = 0.0;
  final int COUNT = 12;
  boolean valid = true;

  //initiazlize variables min and max to something out of range
  double min = 999999999999.9;
  double max = -0.1;
  int min_month = 0;
  int max_month = 0;

  //temp variable
  double curr = 0.0;

  for (int i=0; i < COUNT; i++){

    //user input validation
    do{

		//get user input
        System.out.print("enter the rainfall for month number " + (i+1) +": ");
        userInput=input.nextLine();

		try{

			//convert input to double
			curr = Double.parseDouble(userInput);
			valid = true;

			//throw error if input is less than 0
			if(curr < 0) throw new Exception();

		} catch (Exception e) {

			System.err.println("\nThat was not a valid entry! \nPlease try again.\n");
			valid = false;
									}
   } while (!valid);

   //keep a running total
   sum+= curr;

   //find min
   if(curr < min){
     min = curr;
     min_month = i+1;
   }

   //find max
   if(curr > max){
     max = curr;
     max_month = i+1;
   }

  } //end for loop

  //compute the average
  double avg = sum/COUNT;

  //report the result
  System.out.println("\nThe avg rainfall is " + String.format("%.2f", avg) +
    "\n" + "The min rainfall is " + min + " for month number " + min_month +
    "\n" + "The max rainfall is " + max + " for month number " + max_month );
 }
}

Here is how the output should look like:

wpid-rainfall_output-2014-03-24-03-24.png

03/27/14

How Japanese Kids Learn to Multiply...

Japan Math

03/24/14

20 Good Functions to Know in Python

To wrap up our last 2 discussions about functions, namely how to use functions in Python and the temperature convertor, let us take a look at some functions that you may find useful in the future. We are going to start off easy and stack up. As before, we are going to be using Python 2.7. Before we get started let me remind every one, yes there are other ways, perhaps even better ways to code these functions. This is How I did it. It does not mean this is how you should do it. In fact, I would lover it if you left your version in the comments bellow! If you think it is too long for the comment section, send me an email and I will make it into a post. Lastly, these function are meant as an exercise, please be patient even if some of them do not make sense.

For each function (There are 22) we are going to look at the following:

  1. Brief description of the function
  2. Input types
  3. Excepted output
  4. Notes (if any)
  5. Example execution
  6. Code
  7. Example Output for code
  8. Final Notes (if any)

This is going to be long, so hang on. Let’s get started!

1. Even numbers:
Return a boolean value representing whether x is even or not.

input: number (integer)
output: True or False (boolean)

Example execution:
is_even(5) => False
is_even(42) => True

Code:

def is_even(n):
	return (n % 2) == 0

Code Output:

wpid-python_is_even_output-2014-01-6-19-281.png

Final notes: Be aware the although the function is excepting an integer, a float might be passed in as the value of n. The result would always be False unless n is an even integer.

2. Remove evens:
Given a list of integers, remove all even values from the list and return an odd list of numbers.

input: a list of integers (list)
output: a list of odd numbers (list)

Example execution:
remove_evens([1,2,3,4,5,6]) => [1,3,5]

Code:

* Edited thanks to Eric Wilson (See comments)

def remove_evens(alist):
	res = []
	for n in alist:
		if not is_even(n): res.append(n)
	return res

Code Output:

wpid-python_remove_evens-2014-01-6-19-281.png

Final Note: You will notice that in this function we are calling another function within the module.

3. Min Value:
Accepts a list of numbers, and returns a copy of the smallest value in it.

input: a list if integers (list)
output: the minimum number (integer)

Example execution:
minval([104,22,31,4,54,61]) => 4

Code:

def minval(alist):
	return min(alist)

Code Output:

wpid-python_minval-2014-01-6-19-281.png

Final notes: Although in the input section we assumed that the function should only accept a list of integers. The function, as coded above, will also work for a mixed valued list. Python will use simple comparison to make sense and determine what the min value is.

Final notes 2: I am aware that that this function is useless since all it does is called the built in function min().

4. Index of Min Value:
Accepts a list of numbers, and returns the index (zero based) where the smallest value can be found. It must return the earliest index, in case of ties.

input: a list if integers (list)
output: the minimum number’s index in the list (integer)

Example execution:
min_index([104,22,31,4,54,61]) => 3

Code:

def min_index(alist):
	return alist.index(minval(alist))

Code Output:

wpid-python_minval_index_2-2014-01-6-19-281.png

Final Note: You will notice that in this function we are calling another function within the module.

5. Remove Value:
Finds the first instance of a value, and removes it from the list. Return a boolean, True when the value was removed, and False when the value wasn't found.

input: an integer value and a list of integer numbers
output: True or False (boolean)

Example execution:
remove_a_value(22,[104,22,31,4,54,61]) => True
remove_a_value(105,[104,22,31,4,54,61]) => False

Code:

def remove_a_value(val, alist):
	try:
		alist.remove(val)
		return True
	except:
		return False

Code Output:

wpid-python_remove_value-2014-01-6-19-281.png

6. Simple Sort:
Given a list of numbers, you will return a copy of the list with all elements in sorted (ascending) order. You must implement the following algorithm:

make a copy of the list make an empty result list
LOOP as long as the copylist isn't empty:
find the minimum value in the copylist, remove it
add that minval to the end of the resultlist return the result list

input: a list if integers (list)
output: a list of sorted integers (list)

Example execution:
simple_sort([104, 22, 31, 4, 54, 61]) => [4, 22, 31, 54, 61, 104]

Code:

def simple_sort(alist):
	copy = alist[:]
	res = []
	while len(copy) > 0:
		x = minval(copy)
		res.append(x)
		copy.remove(x)
	return res

Code Output:

wpid-demo_function_6-2014-01-6-19-281.png

Final Note: Although the function is assuming to work on integers, it may also work on other data types. Try it out.

7. Destructive Sort:
This behaves the same as Simple Sort, except that it must modify the original.

input: a list if integers (list)
output: NONE.

NOTE: In this function we will be modifying the original list, meaning it is a destructive function to the arguments passed in. Also note that the function does not have any return statements or a return value.

Example execution:
list_a = [33,94,1,92,54,12]
distraction_sort(list_a)

Code:

#The code uses simple_sot(alist) to sort the list and then rewrites the original list values
def distraction_sort(xs):
	temp = simple_sort(xs)
	for i in range(len(temp)):
		xs[i] = temp[i]

Code Output:

wpid-demo_function_7-2014-01-6-19-281.png

8. Middle Sort:
Without modifying the original list, find out what the middle element would be when all the elements are sorted. If the length is even (and thus no true 'middle' element), then out of the two elements closest to the middle, prefer the left one.

input: a list if integers (list)
output: the middle number if the list was sorted (an integer)

Example execution:
median_value([5,34,29,91,102,44,1,4]) => 29

Code:

def median_value(xs):
	temp = simple_sort(xs)
	mid = int(len(xs)/2)
	if is_even(len(xs)): mid -= 1
	return temp[mid]

Code Output:

wpid-demo_function_8-2014-01-6-19-281.png

9. Kth Sorted:
Like Middle Sort, only we seek the Kth spot, not the middle spot. K is a zero-based integer index into the sorted version of list.

input: a list if integers (list)
output: the kth number if the list was sorted (an integer)

Example execution:
kth(2,[71,43,67,10,4,3,87,103s]) => 10

Code:

def kth(k,xs):
	temp = simple_sort(xs)
	return temp[k]

Code Output:

wpid-demo_function_9-2014-01-6-19-28.png

10. Zip List:
Given two lists of values, create and return a list of tuples that "zip" up the values from the two lists together - first items in a pair, second items in a pair, and so on.

input: 2 lists of integers (lists)
output: a single list of tuples with values from both lists (a list)

Example execution:
zip([1, 2, 3, 4], ['a', 'b', 'c', 'd']) => [(1, 'a'), (2, 'b'), (3, 'c'), (4, 'd')]

Code:

def zip(xs,ys):
	res = []
	i = 0
	while i < len(xs) and i < len(ys):
		res.append((xs[i],ys[i]))
		i += 1
	return res

Code Output:

wpid-demo_function_10_b-2014-01-6-19-28.png

11. Multiply Lists:
Given two lists of numbers, create a new list of numbers by multiplying the same-indexed values. As soon as one list runs out of values, the resulting list ends.

input: 2 lists of integers (lists)
output: a single list with the values from both list multiplied, while both lists have values (a list)

Example execution:
pairwise_multiply([2, 3, 10, 11], [35, 10, 29, 3]) => [70, 30, 290, 33]

Code:

def pairwise_multiply(xs,ys):
	res = []
	i = 0
	while i < len(xs) and i < len(ys):
		res.append(xs[i]*ys[i])
		i += 1
	return res

Code Output:

wpid-demo_cundtion_11-2014-01-6-19-28.png

12. Dot Product:
Given two lists of numbers, return a single number found by multiplying each same-indexed pair of numbers, and adding the results together.

input: 2 lists of integers (lists)
output: the sum of each pair of elements multiplied (an integer)

Example execution:
dot_product([1, 2, 3], [3, 2, 1]) => 10

Code:

def dot_product(alist, blist):
	return sum(pairwise_multiply(alist,blist))

Code Output:

wpid-demo_function_12-2014-01-6-19-28.png

13. N Copies:
Return a list with n copies of val.

input: a number and a value (integer,any)
output: a list with n copies of a given value (a list)

Example execution:
n_copy(5,3) => [5, 5, 5]

Code:

def n_copy(val,n):
	res = []
	for i in range(n):
		res.append(val)
	return res

Code Output:

wpid-demo_function_13-2014-01-6-19-28.png

14. Interleave:
Given two lists of values, create (and return) the interleaved version by making a new list with the first value of list_a, then the first value of list_b, then the second value of list_a, second value of list_b, and so on. Once a list is done the rest of the values from the other list are added to the resulting list.

input: 2 lists of integers (lists)
output: A single list with the values from both lists interleaved (a list)

NOTE: Etra valuees for either list are added to the end of the result list

Example execution:
interleave(['a', 'b', 'c'], [1, 2, 3]) => ['a', 1, 'b', 2, 'c', 3]

Code:

def interleave(alist,blist):
	res = []
	i = 0
	while i<len(alist) and i<len(blist):
		res.append(alist[i])
		res.append(blist[i])
		i += 1
	for j in range(i,len(alist)):
		res.append(alist[j])
	for j in range(i,len(blist)):
		res.append(blist[j])
	return res

Code Output:

wpid-demo_function_14-2014-01-6-19-28.png

15. Riffle Shuffle:
Imagine we were shuffling cards with the standard "riffle" shuffle (just interleaving two halves of the deck together). For many card games, we need to perform multiple shuffling in order to get enough apparent randomness in the order of cards. List represents the 'deck' to be shuffled, and n represents how many "riffle" shuffling need to be performed.

input: a single list (a list)
output: a shuffled list (a list)

NOTE: Like function 7, distraction_sort, this function modifies the original values given

Example execution:
list_a = ['a','b','c','d','e','f','g']
riffle_shuffle(list_a)

Code:

def riffle_shuffle(alist):
	temp = alist
	mid = int(len(alist)/2)
	temp = interleave(temp[0:mid],temp[mid:len(alist)])
	for i in range(len(alist)):
		alist[i] = temp[i]

Code Output:

wpid-demo_function_15-2014-01-6-19-28.png

16. Pairs:
Create and return a list of all possible pairs from values in list_a and values in list_b. The order of elements is important! all of the pairs of list_a first element must appear before all pairs involving list_a second element; similarly, when pairing with a specific element from list_a, these pairs must include list_b elements in the same order as original.

input: 2 lists of integers (lists)
output: a single list with pairs of values from both lists (a list)

Example execution:
all_pairs([1, 2, 3], ['a', 'b', 'c']) => [(1, 'a'), (1, 'b'), (1, 'c'), (2, 'a'), (2, 'b'), (2, 'c'), (3, 'a'), (3, 'b'), (3, 'c')]

Code:

def all_pairs(alist,blist):
	res = []
	for x in alist:
		for y in blist:
			res.append((x,y))
	return res

Code Output:

wpid-demo_function_16-2014-01-6-19-28.png

17. Build Deck:
Create a fresh, organized deck. You must generate the result from these two strings: one representing all the pips (card values) "23456789TJQKA", and another representing the suits, "CDHS".

input: 2 strings, “23456789TJQKA” and “CDHS” (strings)
output: a list of cards (a list)

NOTE: each card will be repressed by a value and suit. For example: 4C is 4 of clubs, TS is ten of spades and QH is queen of heats.

Example execution:
new_deck()

Code:

def new_deck():
	val = "23456789TJQKA"
	shapes = "CDHS"
	return (all_pairs(val,shapes))

Code Output:

wpid-demo_function_17_b-2014-01-6-19-28.png

18. Reduce Dimension:
Given a list of more than one dimension, create and return a new list by collapsing that outermost dimension.

input: a multidimensional list (a list)
output: the list without the outmost dimension (a list)

NOTE: This function only reduces the original list dimension by 1, not a full flatten.

Example execution:
flatten([[[1, 2, 3], 4], [5]]) => [[1, 2, 3], 4, 5]

Code:

def flatten(alist):
	res = []
	for i in alist:
		for j in i:
			res.append(j)
	return res

Code Output:

wpid-demo_function_18-2014-01-6-19-28.png

19. Map:
Given a python function and a sequence of values, create and return a new list by calling the function on each value in the sequence and placing the results into the returned list.

input: a function name and a sequence of values (string,tuple/list)
output: the results from the mapped function onto the sequence of values (a list)

Example execution:
map(ord,”Hello World”) => [72, 101, 108, 108, 111, 32, 87, 111, 114, 108, 100]

Code:

def map(f,alist):
	res = []
	for x in alist:
		res.append(eval(str(f(x))))
	return res

Code Output:

wpid-demo_function_19-2014-01-6-19-28.png

20. Zip With:
Combine elements of list_a and list_b together while using the operator, generating a new list.

input: a function and 2 lists (string,lists)
output: a list with the values from applying the function on the lists values (a list)

Example execution:
zip_with(add, [1, 2, 3], [4, 5, 6]) => [5, 7, 9]

Code:

def zip_with(f,alist,blist):
	res = []
	i = 0
	while i<len(alist) and i<len(blist):
		res.append(eval(str(f(alist[i],blist[i]))))
		i += 1
	return res

Code Output:

wpid-demo_function_20-2014-01-6-19-28.png

03/17/14

As someone who has been through a lot of math...

Dear Math

03/15/14

Make the Juice Last: Battery Advice for Mobile Devices

It's happened again - you're dead. Or at least your connection to the outside world is. Your battery life decreased so rapidly you could almost watch the percentage fall. These days, if you even think about relying on GPS, setting the display to bright, playing a video or connecting to Bluetooth, let alone making a call, you may be down to no battery power in a blink. The longest you can expect your battery to last between charging sessions on the best phones available is about 15 hours, according to CNET. But there are some simple ways to avoid draining your battery while still actually using your device.

Depositphotos_35880677_xs

Battery ‘Bloodsuckers’

One of the biggest energy drains on your battery is your device’s display, but you don’t have to reduce brightness when you really need it. When you aren’t using it, however, minimize the brightness as much as you can or turn off the display altogether. Adjust your settings so that the screen goes black every couple of minutes when the device is not in use.

It’s so easy to forget to turn off your GPS function after you’ve reached a destination, but it guzzles a battery’s power. Now that you know where you are, close out of this app.

Bluetooth and Wi-Fi also suck power from your battery. Unchecking these functions in your “Settings” options when you don’t need them can double your battery life, with one exception. Using the Wi-Fi calling feature on some of T-Mobile’s Windows phones can actually boost battery life.

Flying high? On an airplane, your phone will continuously search for non-existent signals, burning battery power. Simply switch to “airplane mode” when you’re on a plane to prevent this, suggests PC World.

More Remedies

Adjust the settings on your device to switch automatically to battery-saving mode when the device is losing power. On a Windows phone, go to “Settings” then “Battery Saver.” It turns off some services while in standby to preserve battery life, but you can receive calls and texts. Emails must be refreshed manually. Even if your battery charge isn’t low, you can activate the battery saver manually by clicking the advanced button.

It’s advisable to turn off another feature on a Windows phone: the double tap to wake up the phone. Turning it off saves battery life; instead, all you have to do is press the power button to wake up the phone.

‘App’ the Battery Life with the Latest Releases

Several downloadable apps can alert you to flagging battery power and some can even extend battery life. The “Go Battery Saver & Power Widget” for Android phones, for example, extends the life of a battery with power-saving modes. The app also shows the time remaining before the device will switch off and has a widget with a personalized user interface that enhances battery performance. To keep the process of charging the battery "safe,” the app's charging maintenance helps in the overall extension of battery life during charging.

Another Android app is the “DU Battery Saver & Widgets” available in 17 languages that claims it can increase battery life by 50 percent. The app lets users pre-set battery power management modes or personalize modes to suit their habits. Its one-touch widget can close all power-eating apps working in the background. In addition, its “healthy charge manager” tracks practices that will enhance battery life.

The more of these "fixes" you turn to, the longer you can expect your battery to function between charges. Preserving device battery power is simply a matter of being aware of how many functions and processes are part of your device.

03/7/14

Python + Wiimote + 15 tonnes of Metal!


Old, but worth it,